1.  You are given a nucleic acid sample with the following sequence:

AUGAAAGACCAGCGCUGA.  Is the sample RNA or DNA and how do you know?

2.  The three- letter mRNA nucleotide sequence that specifies an amino acid is called a _______.

3. Describe what would happen if AAA in the question 1 nucleic acid sequence is changed to AAG. Name the type of mutation and describe its effect on the primary structure (amino acid sequence) of the polypeptide ______________________

4.  Describe what would happen if GAC in the question 1 nucleic acid sequence is changed to GAG. Name the type of mutation and describe its effect on the primary structure (amino acid sequence) of the polypeptide ______________________

Types and effects of DNA mutations are described in Course Module 2 Commentary. A Genetic Decoder Table is posted in Week 2 topic Key Concept: DNA, RNA & the Genetic Code

Part B. Short answers

Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible and where appropriate include a specific example to illustrate. Answer the questions in essay form (not as an outline or bullets) using complete sentences. You may use a diagram or table to supplement your answers, but a diagram or table alone without appropriate discussion will not be adequate for full credit. Reminder: All answers must be written in your own words and include complete and accurate citations for the sources you used to answer the question or that support your answer. 

5. What role do the existing strands of DNA play during the synthesis of the new DNA strands? Use the following sequence of double stranded DNA to illustrate how the existing and new strands are related after replication of the molecule (label which are the new and old strands).



6. RNA is synthesized on a DNA template in a process called ______ which utilizes the enzyme ______. Describe the events and molecules involved in this process. Use the DNA molecule in question 5 to illustrate and show the RNA product. [Hint: The template strand for transcription: 3ʹ-TACCCGAGGTTAGCCGACATC-5ʹ

7. Proteins are synthesized using mRNA as a template in a process called _____. Show the amino acid sequence for the mRNA sequence you determined in question 6.

8. Describe at least three functions of cell membranes.

9. In a table compare general structural similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells related to the following patterns of organization: genetic organization, compartmentation, protein synthesis, and cell motility.

10. Name the four major classes of cellular organic macromolecules and their subunits. Describe the function of each of the four types of biologic macromolecules.

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